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Cole, T; Giordano, A. 2014. Bringing the Ghetto to the Jew: The Shifting Geography of the Budapest Ghetto. In Geographies of the Holocaust (Knowles, A., Cole, T., and Giordano, A., eds.), Chapter 5. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Cole, T; Giordano, A. 2014. Rethinking Segregation in the Ghetto: Invisible Walls and Social Networks in the Dispersed Ghetto in Budapest, 1944. In Lessons and Legacies X: Expanding Perspectives on the Holocaust in a Changing World (H. Earl and K. Schleunes, eds.). Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.

Courville, BC; Jensen, JLR; Dixon, RW; Fonstad, MA. 2014. A Landsat-based evaluation of lake water clarity in Maine lakes. Physical Geography 34(4): 355-368.

Dahal, KR; Chow, TE. 2014. Parcel-Divider: a GIS Toolset for Automated Partitioning of Urban Lands. Environmental Modeling and Software 55: 222-234.

Giordano, A; Holian, A. 2014. Retracing the “Hunt for Jews”: A Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Arrests during the Holocaust in Italy. In Geographies of the Holocaust (Knowles, A., Cole, T., and Giordano, A., eds.), Chapter 3. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Giordano, A; Cole, T; Knowles, A. Geographies of the Holocaust. In: Knowles, A; Cole, T; and Giordano, A (eds). Geographies of the Holocaust. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Lin, Y; Zhan, FB. 2014. Geographic Variations of Racial Disparities of Cervical Cancer Mortality in Texas. Southern Medical Journal 107(5): 281-288.

Liu, Y; Wang, F; Kang, C; Gao, Y; Lu, Y. 2014.  Analyzing relatedness by toponym co-occurrences on web pages. Transactions in GIS 18(1): 89-107.

Scholtz, WR; Lu, Y. 2014. Detection of dynamics activity patterns at collective scale from large volume trajectory data. International Journal of Geographic Information Sciences 28(5): 946-963.

Zhan, FB; Gong, X; Liu, XJ. 2014. Mark on the Globe: A Quest for Scientific Bases of Geographic Information and its International Influence. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 28(6): 1233-1245.

Zhang, W; Wang, H; Han, F; Gao, J; Nguyen, T; Chen, Y; Huang, B; Zhan, FB; Zhou, L; Hong, S. 2014. Modeling Urban Growth by the Use of a Multiobjective Optimization Approach: Environmental and Economic Issues for the Yangtze Watershed, China. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. (2014): 1-16.

(in press) Burleson, S; Giordano, A. 2014. Extending Metadata Standards for Historical GIS Research: A Case Study of the Holocaust in Budapest and the Armenian Genocide in Turkey. International Journal of Applied Geospatial Research.

(in press) Dahal, KR; Chow, TE. 2014. An Agent-Integrated Irregular Automata Model of Urban Land Use Dynamics. International Journal of Geographic Information Science. DOI:10.1080/13658816.2014.917646.

(in press) Seegers, J; Giordano, A. 2014. Cartographic Constructs: A Case Study of Nantucket Oral Histories. The Professional Geographer.  

(in press) Zhan, FB; Lin, Y. 2014. Racial/Ethnic, Socioeconomic, and Geographic Disparities of Cervical Cancer Advanced-Stage Diagnosis in Texas. Women’s Health Issues. DOI: 10.1016/j.whi.2014.06.009.

(in press) Zou, B; Zhan, FB. 2014. Air Pollution Exposure Assessment and Environmental Health Risk Analysis. (book chapter in Chinese)


Brender, JD; Weyer, PJ; Romitti, PA: Mohanty, B; Shinde, MU; Vuong, AM; Sharkey, JR; Dwivedi, D; Horel, SA; Kantamneni, J; Huber, JC; Zheng, Q; Werler, M; Kelley, KE; Griesenbeck, JS; Zhan, FB; Langlois, PH; Suarez, L; Canfield, MA; the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. 2013. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring. Environmental Health Perspective 121(9): 1083-1089.

Clennon, E; Blanchard, RD; Chow, TE. 2013. Business clustering in knowledge-based industries in the Austin-Round Rock, Texas, metropolitan statistical area. Papers in Applied Geography 36: 367-376.

Duarte, A; Jensen, JLR; Hatfield, JS; Weckerly, FW. 2013. Spatiotemporal variation in range-wide golden-cheeked warbler breeding habitat. Ecosphere 4(12): 152

Fonstad, MA; Dietrich, JT; Courville, BC; Jensen, JLR; Carbonneau, PE. 2013. Topographic Structure from Motion: A New Development in Photogrammetric Measurement. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 38: 421-430.

Fuhrmann, S; Huynh, NT; Wang, R. Comparing Fear of Crime and Crime Statistics on a University Campus. In: Leitner, M (eds). Crime Modeling and Mapping Using Geospatial Technologies (Lecture Notes in Geotechnologies and the Environment). Chapter 14: 319-338. Springer, New York.

Harper, C; Currit, N; Jensen, JLR. 2013. Estimating tree canopy foliar volume using terrestrial LiDAR. Papers in Applied Geography 36: 290-298.

Jensen, JLR; Irvin, S; Duarte, A. 2013. Lidar-based detection of shrubland and forest land cover to improve identification of Golden-Cheeked Warbler habitat. Papers in Applied Geography 36: 74-82.

Lu, Z; Zhan, FB; Er, D. 2013. Probability estimation of future earthquakes in China based on improved PSHA model. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University 38(3): 349-352. (in Chinese with an English abstract)

Mathews, A; Lu, Y; Patton, M; Dede-Bamfo, N; Chen, J. 2013. College students’ consumption, contribution, and risk awareness related to online mapping services and social media outlets: Does geography and GIS knowledge matter? GeoJournal 78: 627-639.

Mathews, A; Jensen, JLR. 2013. Visualizing and Quantifying Vineyard Canopy LAI Using an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Collected High Density Structure from Motion Point Cloud. Remote Sensing 5: 2164-2183.

Meng, X; Currit, N; Wang, L; Yang, X. 2013. Seeing residential buildings from remotely sensed imagery: An object-oriented approach. In Advances in Mapping from Remote Sensor Imagery: Techniques and Applications. X. Yang and J. Li, eds. CRC Press.

Wan, N; Zhan, FB; Zou, B; Wilson, JG. 2013. Spatial Access to Healthcare Services and Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Stage at Diagnosis in Texas. The Professional Geographer 65(3): 527-541.

Zhou, XG; Chen, J; Zhan, FB; Li, ZL; Madden, M; Zhao, RL; Liu, WZ. 2013. A Euler number-based topological computation model for land parcel database updating. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 27(10): 1983-2005.

(in press) Yorke, C; Zhan, FB; Lu, Y; Hagelman, R. 2013. Incorporating Evacuation Potential into Place Vulnerability Analysis. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk.  DOI:10.1080/19475705.2013.832406.


Chow, TE. 2012. "We know who you are and we know where you live": A research agenda of web demographics. In: Sui, D; Elmwood, S; and Goodchild, M (eds). Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge (Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice)Chapter 15: 265-286.Springer.

Chow, TE; Lin, Y; Huynh, NT; Davis, J. 2012. Using Web Demographics to Model Population Change of Vietnamese-Americans in Texas between 2000-2009. GeoJournal 77(1): 119-134.

Duarte, A; Wolcott DM; Chow TE; Ricca, MA. 2012. Identifying and prioritizing recovery sites for the endangered Aleutian shield fern. Journal of Fish and Wildlife Management 3(2): 303-310.

Fang, TB; Lu, Y. 2012. Personal real-time air pollution exposure assessment methods promoted by information technological advances. Annals of GIS 18(4): 279-288.

Fuhrmann, S. Undergraduate Geography Students Define Aesthetic Maps. Cartographic Perspectives 73: 89- 92.

Hickman, D; Chow, TE. 2012. Development of a composite model of quality of life: a case study in Austin, Texas. Geographic Information Science and Remote Sensing 49(6): 802-821.

Liu, X; Zhan, FB. 2012. Productivity of Doctoral Graduate Placement among PhD Granting Geography Programs in the United States: 1960-2010. The Professional Geographer 64(4): 475-490.

Liu, X; Zhan, FB; Song, H; Niu, B; Liu, Y. 2012. A Bibliometric Study of Earthquake Research:1900–2010.Scientometrics 92(3): 747-765.

Lu, Y; Liu, Y. 2012. Pervasive location acquisition technologies: Opportunities and challenges for geospatial studies.Computers, Environment and Urban Systems 36(2): 105-108.

Lu, Y; Yorke, C; Zhan, FB. 2012. Considering risk locations when defining perturbation zones for geomasking.Cartographica 47(3): 168-178.

Mathews, A; Jensen, J. 2012. An airborne LiDAR-based methodology for vineyard parcel detection and delineation. International Journal of Remote Sensing 33 (16): 5251-5267.

Mathews, A.J., Jensen, JLR. 2012. Three-dimensional building modeling using structure from motion: improving model results with telescopic pole aerial photography. Papers of the Applied Geography Conference 35: 98-107.

Rossmo, DK; Lu, Y; Fang, T. 2012. Spatial-temporal crime paths. In: Andresen, MA and Kinney, JB (eds). Patterns, Prevention, and Geometry of Crime (Crime Science Series). Chapter 3: 16-42. Routledge, NY.

Small, M; Veech, J; Jensen, JLR. 2012. Local landscape composition around North American Breeding Bird Survey routes. Ecology 93(10): 2298.

Spradley, K; Hamilton, M; Giordano, A. 2012. Spatial Patterning of Vulture Scavenged Human Remains. Forensic Science International, 219(1-3), 57-63.

Tian, N; Goovaerts, P; Zhan, FBChow, TE; Wilson, JG. 2012. Identifying risk factors for disparities in breast cancer mortality among African American and Hispanic women. Women’s Health Issues 22(3): e267-e276.

Wan, N; Zhan, FBLu, YTiefenbacher, J. 2012. Access to health Care and Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Survival in Texas. Health & Place 18(2): 321-329.

Yao, X; Zhan, FBLu, Y; Yang, M. 2012. Effects of real-time traffic information systems on traffic performance under different network structures. Journal of Central South University of Technology 19: 586-592.

Yu, XM; Zhan, FB; Hu, JX; Chen JS; Liao MS; Liu, L. Object-Oriented Feature Selection Algorithms based on Improved SEaTH Algorithms. Geomatics and Information Science of Wuhan University 37(8): 921-924. (in Chinese with an English abstract)

Zhu, Y; Liang, W; Zhan, FB; Liu, F; Xu, Y; Guo, S; Liu, L. 2012. Gravity Field Dynamics in Mainland China: 1998–2008. Chinese Journal of Geophysics–Chinese Edition 55(3): 804-813. (in Chinese)

Zhan, FB; Cai, ZL; Zhu, Y; Zhou, JC. 2012. A Geospatial Analytical System for Mapping Global Medium-Term Earthquake Probabilities. In Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Systems and Informatics (ICSAI 2012), pp. 2276-2279. Yantai, China, May 19-21, 2012.

Zhu, Y; Liang, W; Zhan, FB; Liu, F; Xu, Y; Guo, S; Liu, L. 2012. Gravity Field Dynamics in Mainland China: 1998–2008. Chinese Journal of Geophysics–Chinese Edition 55(3): 804-813. (in Chinese with an English abstract)

Zhu, Y; Zhan, FB. Medium-Term Earthquake Forecast Using Gravity Monitoring Data: Evidence from the Yutian and Wenchuan Earthquakes in China. International Journal of Geophysics 2012: 1-6.

Zoch, M; Jensen, JLR. 2012. Use of high-resolution public imagery to assist in habitat identification and wildlife monitoring efforts: a case study of Concho Water Snake habitat. Papers of the Applied Geography Conference 35: 118-124. 

Zou, B; Zhan, FB; Zeng, YN. 2012. Spatial-Temporal Modeling of Air Pollution Exposure and Health Risk Assessment. Beijing, China: Environmental Science Press. (in Chinese)





Bryant, LMP; Campos, R; Fuhrmann, S;  Peters, SL; Ray, WC; Farano, CS. 2011. Assessing Aerial Imagery Interpretation of High School Students with Eye-Movement Analysis. The Southwestern Geographer 15(1): 62-69. 

Chow, TE. 2011. Geography 2.0 – A Mashup Perspective. In: Dragicevic, S and Li, S (eds). Advances in Web-based GIS, Mapping Services and Applications (Vol. of ISPRS Book Series). Taylor & Francis.

Chow, TE; Lin, Y; Chan WD. 2011. The Development of a Web-based Demographic Data Extraction Tool for Population Monitoring. Transactions in GIS 15(4): 479-494.

Fang, T; Lu, Y. 2011. Constructing Near Real-time Space-time Cube to Depict Urban Ambient Air Pollution Scenario. Transactions in GIS 15(5): 635-649.


Fuhrmann, S. 2011. Thinking Towards a Tangible and Engaging Health Data Representation. In: Caquard, S; Vaughan, L; and Cartwright W (eds). Mapping Environmental Issues in the City: Arts and Cartography Cross Perspectives (Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography). Chapter 5:  69-73. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Giordano, A; Cole, T. 2011. On Place and Space: Calculating Social and Spatial Networks in the Budapest Ghetto. Transactions in GIS 15(S1): 143-170.

Jensen, J; Humes, KS; Hudak, AT;  Vierling, LA;  Delmelle, E. 2011. Evaluation of the MODIS LAI product using independent lidar-derived LAI: a case study in mixed conifer forest. Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (12): 3625-3639.

Marcus, WA; Rasmussen, J; Fonstad, MA. 2011.  Fire and flood effects on local to watershed scale distributions of large wood in Yellowstone streams. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101(1): 21-44.

Tian, N; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB. 2011. Spatial Association of Racial/Ethnic Disparities Between Late-Stage Diagnosis and Mortality for Female Breast Cancer: Where to Intervene? International Journal of Health Geographics 10: 24.

Tucci, M; Ronza, R; Giordano, A. 2011. Fragments from Many Pasts: Layering the Toponymic Tapestry of Milan. Journal of Historical Geography 37(3): 370-384.

Slade, RM; Chow, TE. 2011. Statistical relations of precipitation and stream runoff for El Niño and La Niña periods, Texas Hill Country. Texas Water Journal 2(1): 1-22.

Wan, N; Zhan, FB; Cai, ZL. 2011. A Spatially Weighted Degree Model for Network Vulnerability Analysis. Geo-Spatial Information Science 14(4): 274-281.

Wan, N; Zhan, FB; Cai, ZL. 2011. Socioeconomic Disparities in Prostate Cancer Mortality and the Impact of Geographic Scale. Southern Medical Journal 104(8): 553-559.

Wan, N; Zhan, FB; Zou, B; Chow, TE. 2011. Analyzing Potential Spatial Access to Colorectal Cancer Services in Texas Using a Relative Spatial Access Presentation. Applied Geography 32(2): 291-299.

Yao, ZJ; Tang, JM; Zhan, FB. 2011. Detection of Arbitrarily–Shaped Clusters Using a Neighbor–Expanding Approach: A Case Study on Murine Typhus in South Texas. International Journal of Health Geographics 10: 23.  

Zhan, FB; Zhu, Y; Ning, JS; Zhou, J; Liang, W; Xu, Y. 2011. Gravity Changes before Large Earthquakes in China: 1998-2005. Geo-Spatial Information Science 14(1): 1-9.  

Zou, B; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB; Zeng, Y; Wu, KJ; Peng, F. 2011. Spatial-temporal Variations of Regional Ambient Sulfur Dioxide Concentration and Source Contribution Analysis: A Dispersion Modeling Approach. Atmospheric Environment 45(28): 4977-4985.

Zou, B; Zeng, Y; Zhan, FB; Liu FM; Qiu YH; Zhang HF. 2011. Assessment of Maternal Exposure to Ambient Air Pollution and its Relationship with Low Birth Weight: A Review. Journal of Hygiene Research 40(2): 246-252. (in Chinese)

Zou, B; Zhan, FB; Zeng, Y. 2011. Maternal Exposure to Sulfur Dioxide and the Risk of Low Birth Weight Babies. Journal of Hygiene Research 40(5): 638-642. (in Chinese)

Zou, B; Zhan, FB; Zeng, Y; Yorke, C; Liu, X. 2011. Performance of Kriging and EWPM for Relative Air Pollution Exposure Risk Assessment. International Journal of Environmental Research 5(3): 769-778.



Chen, X; Zhan, FB; Wu, G. 2010. A Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Commute Pattern Changes in Central Texas. Annals of GIS (formerly Journal of Geographic Information Science) 16(4): 255-267. 


Chow, TE; Sadler, R. 2010. The consensus of local stakeholders and outside experts in suitability modeling for future camp development. Landscape and Urban Planning 94(1): 9-19.


Cox, G; Giordano, A; Juge, M. 2010. The Geography of Language Shift: A Quantitative Cemetery Study in the Texas Czech Community. The Southwestern Geographer 14.

Fonstad, MA; Marcus, WA. 2010. High-resolution, basin-extent observations of fluvial forms and implications for process understanding. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 35: 680-698.  

Giordano, A; Anderson, S; He, X. 2010. How Near is Near? The Distance Perceptions of Residents of a Nuclear Emergency Planning Zone. Environmental Hazards 9: 167-182.

Giordano, A; Cheever, L. 2010. Using Dasymetric Mapping to Identify Communities at Risk from Hazardous Waste Generation: San Antonio, Texas. Urban Geography 31(5): 623-647.

Huynh, NT; Doherty, S; Sharpe, B. 2010. Gender Differences in the Sketch Map Creation Process. Journal of Maps 2010: 270-288.

Lamb, MP; Fonstad, MA. 2010. Rapid formation of a modern bedrock canyon: implications for megaflood reconstructions.  Nature Geosciences 3(7): 477-481.

Liu, XJ; Zhan, FB; Ai, TH. 2010. Road Selection Based on Voronoi Diagrams and ‘Strokes’ in Map Generalization. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 12: S194-S202.

Lu, Y. 2010. Spatial Patterns of Drug Offenses in an Urban Built Environment. In: Lin, H; Lai, J; and Zhou, C (eds). Studies of Spatially Integrated Liberal and Social Sciences 209-220. Science Press: Beijing, China. (In Chinese) ISBN: 978-7-03-026632-3

Lu, Y; Carter, L; Showalter, PS. 2010. Wildfire Risk Analysis at the Wildfire Urban Interface in Travis County, Texas. In: Showalter, PS and Lu, Y (eds). Geospatial Technologies’ Contribution to Urban Hazard Analysis (Geotechnologies and the Environment, Vol. 2). Chapter 10: 203-227. Springer: The Netherlands.

Lu, Y; Yin, W; Chen, J. 2010. A Spatial Analysis of Transportation Convenience in Beijing: Users’ Perception Versus Objective Measurements. In Jiang, B and Yao, X (eds). Geospatial Analysis and Modeling of Urban Structure and Dynamics Chapter 10: 177-195. Springer.

Parr, D; Lu, Y. 2010. The landscape of GIScience publications 1997-2007: An empirical investigation with latent semantic analysis. Transactions in GIS 14(5): 689-708.

Showalter, PS; Lu, Y. 2010. Flash Flood, Low Water Crossings and Swift Water Rescues in Texas. Papers of the Applied Geography Conferences 33: 101-107.

Showalter, PS; Lu, Y. 2010. “Introduction,” Chapter 1 in, Showalter and Lu (eds) Geospatial Techniques in Urban Hazard and Disaster Analysis. Dordretch, Netherlands: Springer.

Tian, J; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB. 2010. Female Breast Cancer Mortality Clusters within Racial Groups in the United States. Health & Place 16(3): 209-218.    

Tian, N; Goovaerts, P; Zhan, FB; Wilson, JG. 2010. Identification of Racial Disparities of Breast Cancer Mortality in Texas: Does Scale Matter? International Journal of Health Geographics 9:35.

Tucci, M; Giordano, A; Ronza, R. 2010. Spatial Analysis and Geovisualization to Reveal Urban Changes: Milan, Italy, 1737-2005. Cartographica 45(1): 47-63.

Wesche, S; Huynh, NT; Nelson, E; Ramachandran, L. 2010. Challenges and Opportunities in Cross-Cultural Geographic Inquiry: The Graduate Student Research Experience. The Journal of Geography in Higher Education 34(1): 59-75.

Zeng, Y; Huang, W; Zhan, FB; Zhang, H; Liu, H. 2010. Study on the urban heat island effects and its relationship with surface biophysical characteristics using MODIS imageries. Geo-Spatial Information Science 13(1):1-7.

Zhan, FB; Tapia-Silva, FO; Santillana, M. 2010. Estimating Small Area Population Growth Using Geographic Knowledge Guided Cellular Automata. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31(21): 5689-5707. 

Zhu, Y; Zhan, FB; Zhou, J; Liang, W; Xu, Y. 2010. Gravity measurements and their variations before the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 100(5B): 2815-2824.

Zou, B; Zhan, FB; Wilson, JG; Zeng, Y. 2010. Performance of AERMOD at Different Temporal Scales. Simulation Modelling Practice and Theory 18:612–623.



Beorn, W; Cole, T; Gigliotti, S; Giordano, A; Holian, A; Jaskot, P; Knowles, A; Masurovsky, M; Steiner, E. 2009. The Geography of the Holocaust. The Geographical Review 99(4): 563-574.

Brender, JD; Zhan, FB; Langlois, PH; Suarez, L. 2009. Industrial Pollution and Congenital Malformations. In: Harry Newbury and William De Lorne (Eds.), Industrial Pollution Including Oil Spills. Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Science Publishers, pp: 225-252.

Chow, TE; Hodgson, ME. 2009. Effects of Lidar Post-spacing and DEM Resolution to Mean Slope Estimation. International Journal of Geographic Information Science 23(10): 1277-1295.

Houlton, S; Cooper, C; Fuhrmann, S; Ostling, J; Perry, C; Wranic, A. 2009. Assessing 3D web-mapping and topographic maps in physical geographic education. Papers of the Applied Geography Conferences, October 28-31, Baton Rouge, 32: 9-18.

Huynh, NT; Sharpe, B. 2009. The Role of Spatial Reasoning in Effective GIS Problem Solving: K-16 Education Levels. Geomatica 63(2): 119-128.

Langlois, PH; Brender, JD; Suarez, L; Zhan, FB; Mistry, JH; Jimenez, S; Moody, K. 2009. Conotruncal Heart Defects and Proximity to Environmental Hazards. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 23:321-331.

Lin, S; Lu, Y. 2009. The Spatial Patterns of Adverse Health Effects of Ozone Pollution on Childhood Respiratory Diseases in Urban Houston. Annals of GIS 15(2): 127-140.

Liu, X; Ai, T; Liu Y. 2009. Road density analysis based on skeleton partitioning for road generalization. Geo-Spatial Information Science 12(2): 110-116.

Lu, Y. 2009. Spatial clustering detection and analysis. In R. Kitchin and N. Thrift (eds.). International Encyclopedia of Human Geography, 1: 317-324. Oxford: Elsevier

Murray, AB; Lazarus, E; Ashton, A; Baas, A; Coco, G; Coulthard, T; Fonstad, M; Haff, P; McNamara, D; Paola, C; Pelletier, J; Reinhardt, L. 2009. Geomorphology, complexity, and the emerging science of the earth’s surface. Geomorphology 103(3): 496-505.

Showalter, PS; Lu, Y. 2009. “Techno-Hyperactivity.” GIM International 23(1). Last updated January 12; accessed January 22.

Showalter, PS; Lu, Y (eds). 2009. Geospatial Techniques in Urban Hazard and Disaster Analysis. Springer-Verlag, The Netherlands.

Showalter, PS; Caldwell, S. 2009. Pocket Farms of Hays County, Texas: Sustainable Agriculture in Rural/Urban Fringe Environments. Occasional Paper No. 3, the James and Marilyn Lovell Center for Environmental Geography and Hazards Research, Department of Geography, Texas State University. June, pp: 148.

Silvan, JL; Wang, L; Zhan, FB. 2009. Representing Geographical Objects with Scale-Induced Indeterminate Boundaries: A Neural Network-Based Data Model. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 23(3): 295-318.

Zhou, X; Luo, J; Zhu, H; Ju, W; Fan, J; Zhan, FB. Models and Algorithms for Contaminated Area Detection Based on Geospatial Lifelines. In Proceedings of Geoinformatics 2009. Washingtong, DC.

Zou, B; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB; Zeng, YN. 2009. A Review of Air Pollution Exposure Assessment Methods Utilized in Epidemiological Studies. Journal of Environmental Monitoring 11: 475-490.

Zou, B; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB; Zeng, YN. 2009. An Emission-Weighted Proximity Model for Air Pollution Exposure Assessment. Science of the Total Environment 407(17): 4939–4945.  

Zou, B; Wilson, JG; Zhan, FB; Zeng, YN. 2009. Spatially Differentiated and Source Specific Population Exposure to Ambient Urban Air Pollution. Atmospheric Environment 43(26): 3981-3988.

Zou, B; Zeng, YN; Zhan, FB; Yang, LB. 2009. Assessment of Health Risk Associated with Urban Water Quality in Hunan, China. Geography and Geo-Information Science 25(2): 94-98. (in Chinese)


Brender, JD; Zhan, FB; Langlois, PH; Suarez, L; Scheuerle, A. 2008. Residential Proximity to Waste Sites and Industrial Facilities and Chromosomal Anomalies in Offspring. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health 211(1-2): 50-58.
Brender, JD; Suarez, L; Langlois, PH; Steck, M; Zhan, FB; Moody, K. 2008. Are Maternal Occupation and Residential Proximity to Industrial Sources of Pollution Related? Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 50(7): 834-839.
Chen, X; Zhan, FB. 2008. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Urban Evacuation: Relative Effectiveness of Simultaneous and Staged Evacuation Strategies. Journal of the Operational Research Society 59(1): 25-33.
Fuhrmann, S; Maceachern, AM; Cai, G. 2008. Geoinformation technologies to support collaborative emergency management. In: H. Chen, L. Brandt, V. Gregg, R. Traunmüller, S. Dawes, E. Hovy, A. Macintosh & C. A. Larson (Eds.): Digital Government: Advanced Research and Case Studies, Springer, pp: 395-420.
Giordano, A; Wisniewski, L. 2008. Teaching Cartography on the Web with a Multimedia GIS: A New Solution. In: International Perspectives on Maps and the Internet (M. Peterson, ed.). Springer, Berlin, pp: 219-238.
Giordano, A; Lu, Y; Anderson, S; Fonstad, M. 2008. Wireless Mapping, GIS, and Learning about the Digital Divide: A Classroom Experience. Journal of Geography 106(6): 285-295
Lu, Y; Thill, JC. 2008. Cross-scale analysis of cluster correspondence using different operational neighborhoods. Journal of Geographical Systems 10(3): 241-262.
Marcus, WA; Fonstad, M. 2008. Optical remote mapping of rivers at sub-meter resolutions and watershed extents. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 33: 4-24.
Parsons, J; Fonstad, M. 2008. A Geographical Cellular Automata Model of Surface Water Flow. Hydrological Processes 21(16): 2189-2195.
Zhan, FB; Chen, X. 2008. Agent-Based Modeling and Evacuation Planning. In: Daniel Z. Sui (Ed.), Geospatial Technologies and Homeland Security: Research Frontiers and Future Challenges, Springer, pp: 189-208.
Zhan, FB; Chen, C. 2008. Intercity Commute Patterns in Central Texas. In: Liu, Lin; Li, Xia; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Xinchang; Wang, Xinhao (Eds.), Geoinformatics 2008 and Joint Conference on GIS and Built Environment: The Built Environment and Its Dynamics. In Proceedings of the SPIE-The International Society for Optical Engineering, 7144: 71442N-71442N-8.
Brad, M; Fonstad, M. 2007. “Preface: Complexity (and Simplicity) in Landscapes.” Complexity in Geomorphology. Proceedings of the 38th Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium. Amsterdam: Elsevier Press
Fuhrmann, S. (Ed.) 2007: Themenheft: Europäische Kartographen in Nordamerika (Special Issue: European Cartographers in North America). Kartographische Nachrichten 57(2)
Fuhrmann, S; Maceachern, AM; Cai, G. 2007. Krisenmanagement mit modernen Geoinformationstechnologien (Crisis management with modern geoinformation technologies). Kartographische Nachrichten, 57(2): 92-99.
Fuhrmann, S; Maceachern, AM; Gahegan, M; Downs, R. 2007. Geospatial Online Learning Activities for Middle School Students. In: Andrew J. Milson & Marsha Alibrandi (Eds.): Digital Geography: Geo-Spatial Technologies in the Social Studies Classroom, Information Age Publishing, Greenwich, CT.
Giordano, A ; Nolan, T. 2007. Civil War Maps of the Battle of Stones River: History and the Modern Landscape. The Cartographic Journal 44(1): 55-70.
Hanford, EJ; Zhan, FB; Lu, Y; Giordano, A. 2007. Chagas Disease in Texas:  Realizing the Significance and Implications of Evidence in the Literature. Social Science & Medicine 65: 60-79.
Huang, B; Wu, Q; Zhan, FB. 2007. A Shortest Path Algorithm with Novel Heuristics for Dynamic Transportation Networks. International Journal of Geographical Information Science 21(6): 625-644.
Lu, Y; Chen, X. 2007. False Alarm of Planar K-Function when Analyzing Urban Crime Distributed along Streets. Social Science Research 36(2): 611-632.
Metzel, D; Giordano, A. 2007. The Locations of Employment Services and People with Disabilities in the United States-A Geographical Analysis of Accessibility. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 18(2): 88-97.
Pulich, WJ; Showalter, PS; Colvin, C. 2007. “Hall’s and Chocolate Bayou Watersheds and Water Quality Protection by Native Habitats.” Proceedings, 8th Annual State of the Bay Symposium, Galveston Bay Estuary Program, Clear Lake, Texas.
Suarez, L; Brender, JD; Langlois, PH; Zhan, FB; Moody, K. 2007. Maternal Exposures to Hazardous Waste Sites and Industrial Facilities and Risk of Neural Tube Defects in Offspring.  Annals of Epidemiology 17(10): 772-777.
Zhan, FB. 2007. Making a Difference Using Geospatial Information Technologies.  Research in Geographic Education 9(1): 153-158.
Brender, JD; Zhan, FB; Suarez, L; Langlois, PH; Gilani, Z; DeLima, I; Moody, K. 2006. Linking Environmental Hazards and Birth Defects Data. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health 12(2): 126-133.
Brender, JD; Zhan, FB; Suarez, L; Langlois, PH; Moody, K. 2006. Maternal Residential Proximity to Waste Sites and Industrial Facilities and Oral Clefts in Offspring. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 48(6): 565-572.
Chen, X; Meaker, JW; Zhan, FB. 2006. Agent-Based Modeling and Analysis of Hurricane Evacuation Procedures for the Florida Keys. Natural Hazards 38(3): 321-338.
Chen, X; Zhan, FB. 2006. Mapping the Vulnerability to Potential Toxic Substance Releases from Industrial Facilities under Emergency Situations: A Case Study of Galveston, Texas. Geographic Information Sciences 12(1): 27-33.
Fonstad, M. 2006. Cellular Automata as Predictive Engines at the Geomorphology-Ecology Interface. Geomorphology 77(3-4): 217-234. 
Joassart -Marcelli, P; Giordano, A. 2006. Does Local Access to Employment Services Reduce Employment? A GIS Analysis of One-Stop Career Services. Policy Sciences
Lin, S; Lu, Y. 2006. Evaluating Local Non-stationarity when Considering the Spatial Variation of Large-scale Autocorrelation. Transactions in GIS 10(2): 301-318.
Lu, Y. 2006. Choice of Auto Thefts in an Urban Environment. Security Journal 19(3): 143-166.
Silvan, J; Wang, L. 2006. A Multi-resolution Approach for Filtering LiDAR Altimetry Data. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 61(1): 11-22.
Tang, JM; Wang, L; Myint, S. 2006. Improving Urban Classification Through Fuzzy Supervised Classification and Spectral Mixture Analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(18): 4047-4063.
Tang, JM; Wang, L; Yao, ZJ. 2006. Analyzing Spatial Fragmentation of Urban Sprawl From Multi-temporal Satellite images: a Case Study of Daqing City, China. GIScience & Remote Sensing
Tang, JM; Wang, L; Yao, ZJ. 2006. Spatial-temporal Urban Landscape Change Analysis Using Markov Chain and Modified Generic Algorithm. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(15): 3288-3271.
Wang, L; Cao, X; Chen, J. 2006. ISVR: An Improved Synthetic Variable Ratio Method for Image Fusion. Geocarto International 23(2): 155-165.
Wang, L; Silvan, J; Sousa, WP. 2006. Neural Network Classification of Mangrove Species from Multiseasonal IKONOS Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 74(7): 921-927
Wu, S; Qiu, X; Wang, L. 2006. Using Semi-variance Image Texture Statistics to Model Population Densities. Cartography and Geographic Information Science 33(2): 127-140.
Wu, S; Silvan, J; Wang, L. 2006. Per-field Land Use Classification Based on Tax Parcel Boundaries. International Journal of Remote Sensing 28(12): 2777-2801.
Zhan, FB; Brender, JD; DeLima, I; Suarez, L; Langlois, PH. 2006. Match Rate and Positional Accuracy of Two Geocoding Methods for Epidemiological Research. Annals of Epidemiology 16(11): 842-849.
Zhan, FB; Brender, JD; Han, Y; Suarez, L; Langlois, PH. 2006. GIS-EpiLink: A Spatial Search Tool for Linking Environmental and Health Data. Journal of Medical Systems 30(5): 405-412.
Zhang, YM; Chen, J; Wang, L; Wang, X; Gu, Z. 2006. Mapping Biological Soil Crust in The Gurbantunggut Desert, China with TM imagery. Journal of Arid Environments 68(4): 599-610
Cai, G; Wang, H; Maceachren, AM; Fuhrmann, S. 2005. Natural conversational interfaces to geospatial databases, Transactions in GIS 9(2): 199-221.
Chen, J; Zhang, YM; Wang, L; Shimazakia, H; Tamura, M. 2005. A New Index for Mapping Lichen Dominated Biological Soil Crusts in Desert Areas. Remote sensing of Environment 96(2): 165-175.
Dunham, S; Fonstad, MA; Anderson, SA; Czajkowski, K. 2005. Using multi-temporal satellite imagery to monitor the response of vegetation to drought in the Great Lakes region, GIScience and Remote Sensing 42(3): 185-201.
Fonstad, MA; Reichling, J; Van de Grift, JW. 2005. Design of a new transparent velocity head rod for rapid and precise stream velocity measurements. Journal of Geoscience Education 53(1): 44-52.
Fuhrmann, S; Ahonen-Rainio, P; Edsall, RM; Fabrikant, SI; Koua, EL; Tobon, C; Ware, C; Wilson, S. 2005. Making Useful and Useable Geovisualization: Design and Evaluation Issues. In: Dykes, J., A. M. MacEachren & M.-J. Kraak (Eds.): Exploring Geovisualization, Elsevier, London, pp: 553-566.
Fuhrmann, S; Pike, W. 2005. User-centered design of collaborative geovisualization tools.  In: Dykes, J., A. M. MacEachren & M.-J. Kraak (Eds.): Exploring Geovisualization, Elsevier, London, pp: 591-609.
Giordano, A. 2005.The People and the Plan: Intended Reactions to a Nuclear Emergency in New York State. Risk Management: An International Journal 7(3): 41-56.
Jordan, DC; Fonstad, MA. 2005. Two-dimensional mapping of river bathymetry and power using aerial photography and GIS on the Brazos River, Texas. Geocarto 20(3): 1-8.
Lu, Y. 2005. Identifying Hot Link between Crime and Crime-Related Locations, in Fahui Wang (eds.) Geographic Information Systems and Crime Analysis, Chapter XV: 253-269. Hershey, PA: IDEA Group Publishing.
O'Kelly, M; Lee, W. 2005. Disaggregate Journey-to-work data: Implications for Excess Commuting and Jobs-housing Balance.  Environment and Planning A 37(12): 2233-2252.
Tang, JM; Wang, L; Zhang, SW. 2005. Investigating Landscape Pattern and its Dynamics in 1990-2000 of Daqing, China using Remote Sensing and GIS. International Journal of Remote Sensing 26(11): 2259-2280.
Wu, S; Qiu, X; Wang, L. 2005. Population Estimation Methods in GIS and Remote Sensing: A Review. GIScience and Remote Sensing 42(1): 58-74.
Wu, S; Xu, B; Wang, L. 2005. Urban Land Use Classification using Variogram-based Analysis with an Aerial Photograph. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 72(7): 813-822.
Zhan, FB; Noon, CE; Chen, X; Wu, G. 2005. A GIS-Enabled Comparison of Fixed and Discriminatory Pricing Strategies for Potential Switchgrass-to-Ethanol Conversion Facilities in Alabama.  Biomass & Bioenergy 28(3): 295-306.
Zhan, FB; Lu, Y; Giordano, A; Hanford, EJ. 2005. Geographic Information System (GIS) as a Tool for Disease Surveillance and Environmental Health Research. Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Services Systems and Services Management 2: 1465-1470.
De Lima, I; Lu, Y. 2004. Investigating the Spatial Relationship between Drug Possession Arrests and Residential Burglaries in Austin, Texas. Southwestern Geographer 7:1-25.
Legleiter, CJ; Roberts, DA; Marcus, WA; Fonstad, MA. 2004. Optical remote sensing of river channel morphology and in-stream habitat: physical basis and feasibility, Remote Sensing of Environment 93: 493-510.
Lu, Y; Tang, JM. 2004. Fractal Dimension of Transportation Network and Its Relationship with Urban Growth: A Study of Dallas -Fort Worth Area. Environment and Planning B 31(6): 895-911.
Wang, L; Gong, P; Biging, GS.  2004.  Individual Tree-Crown Delineation and Treetop Detection in High-Spatial-Resolution Aerial Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 70(3): 351-357.
Wang, L; Sousa, W; Gong, P. 2004. Integration of Object-based and Pixel-based Classification for Mapping Mangroves with IKONOS Imagery. International Journal of Remote Sensing 25(24): 5655-5668.
Wang, L; Sousa, W; Gong, P; Biging, GS. 2004. Comparison of IKONOS and QuickBird Images for Mapping Mangrove Species on the Caribbean Coast of Panama. Remote Sensing of Environment 91(3-4): 432-440.
Fonstad, MA; Marcus, WA. 2003. Self-Organized Criticality in Riverbank Systems. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 93(2): 281-296.
Giordano, A; Gelpke, R. Geographic Information Technologies and the History of a Shoreline: The Case of Chapter 91 in New Bedford, Massachusetts. The Professional Geographer 55(3): 329-342.
Horner, MW; Murray, AT. 2003. A Multiobjective Approach to Improving Jobs-Housing Balance. Regional Studies 37(2): 135-146.
O'Kelly, ME; Horner, MW. 2003. Aggregate Accessibility to Population at the County Level, U.S. 1940-2000. Journal of Geographical Systems 5(1): 5-23.
Lu, Y. 2003. Getting Away with the Stolen Vehicle: an Investigation of Journey-after-crime. The Professional Geographer 55(4): 422-433.
Lu, Y; Thill, TG. 2003. Assessing the Cluster Correspondence between Paired Points. Geographical Analysis 35(4): 290-309.
Wilcock, PR; Crowe, JC. 2003. A Surface-based Transport Model for Sand and Gravel. ASCE, Journal of Hydraulic Engineering 129(2): 120-128.
Xu, B; Gong, P; Liang, S; Seto, E; Spear, R, 2003. Snail Density Estimation for Schistosomiasis Control by Integrating Ffield Survey and Multiscale Satellite Images. Geographic Information Sciences 9(1-2): 97-100.
Xu, B; Gong, P; Pu, R. 2003. Crown Closure Estimation of Oak Savannah in a Dry Season with Landsat TM Iimagery: Comparison of Various Indices through Correlation Analysis. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24(9): 1811-1822.
Xu, B; Gong, P; Seto, E; Spear, R. 2003. Comparison of Gray Level Reduction Schemes with a Revised Texture Spectrum Method for Land-use Classification Using IKONOS Imagery. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 69(5): 529-536.
Pu, R; Xu, B; Gong, P. 2003. Oakwood Crown Closure Estimation by Unmixing Landsat TM data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 24(22): 4433-4445.
Zhan, FB; Lin, H. 2003. Topological Overlay of Two Simple Polygons with Indeterminate Boundaries. Transactions in GIS 7(1): 67-81.
Zhan, FB. 2003. Geographic Patterns of Cancer Mortality in Texas: 1990-1997. Texas Medicine 99(8): 58-64.
Zhan, FB. 2003. GIS-Based Spatial Allocation Analysis of Population Growth in Regional Water Resource Planning. Geographic Information Sciences 8(2): 97-107.
Zhan, FB. 2003. Cognitive Evidence of Vagueness Associated with Some Linguistic Terms in Descriptions of Spatial Relations. Spatial Cognition and Computation 4(2 and 3): 241-257.
Showalter, PS; Silberbauer, M; Howman, A. 2003. “Satellite Imagery’s Role in Understanding the Impact of Residential Growth on Water Quality in a South African Catchment.” ARGWorld Activities from the Association of American Geographers. NY: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston.
Pimpler, E; Zhan, FB. 2003. Drop by Drop: Modeling Water Demand on the Lower Colorado. GeoSpatial Solutions 13(5): 38-41.
Horner, MW. 2002. Extensions to the Concept of Excess Commuting. Environment and Planning A 34(3): 543-566.
Horner, MW; Murray, AT. 2002. Excess Commuting and the Modifiable Areal Unit Problem. Urban Studies 39(1): 131-139.
Noon, CE; Zhan, FB, Graham, RL. 2002 GIS-Based Analysis of Marginal Price Variation with an Application in Ethanol Plant Location. Networks and Spatial Economics 2: 79-93.
O’Kelly, ME; Bryan, D. 2002. Interfacility Interaction in Models of Hub and Spoke Networks. Journal of Regional Science 42(1): 145-164.
Seto, E; Xu, B; Liang, S; Spear, R; Gong, P; Wu, W; Davis, G; Qiu, D; Gu, X. 2002. The Use of Remote Sensing for Predictive Modeling of Schistosomiasis in China. Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing 68(2):167-174.
Tian, QJ; Xu, B; Gong, P; Wang, X;Tong, QX; Guo, HD. 2002. Reflectance, Dielectric Constant and Chemical Contents of Selected Sedimentary Rocks. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23(23): 5123-5128.
Yue, TX; Chen, SP; Xu, B; Liu, QS; Li, HG; Liu, GH; Ye, QH. 2002. A Curve-theorem Based Approach for Change Detection and its Application to Yellow River Delta. International Journal of Remote Sensing 23(11): 2283-2292.
Zhan, FB. 2002. Are Deaths from Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Kidney Cancer, and Leukemia Clustered in San Antonio? Texas Medicine 98(10): 51-56.
Zhan, FB. 2002. Monitoring Geographic Concentration of Female Breast Cancer Using Cluster Analysis: The Case of New Mexico. Papers and Proceedings of Applied Geography Conference 25: 1-8.
Horner, MW; O'Kelly, ME. 2001. Embedding Economy of Scale Concepts for Hub Network Design. Journal of Transport Geography 9(4): 255-265.
Horner, MW; Grubesic, TH. 2001. A GIS-Based Planning Approach to Siting Urban Rail Terminals. Transportation 28(1): 55-77.
Wilcock, PR; Kenworthy, ST; Crowe, JC. 2001. Experimental Study of the Transport of Mixed Sand and Gravel. Water Resources Research 37(12): 3349-3358.
Zhan, FB. 2001. Childhood Cancer Clusters in New Mexico, 1973-1997. The Southwestern Geographer 5: 31-48.
Zhan, FB. 2001. Approximate Characterization of Topological Relations Between Fuzzy Regions and their Corresponding Linguistic Descriptions. Systems Analysis Modeling Simulation 41(1): 1-17.
Zhan, FB. 2001. GIS for Air Quality: It's a Particulate Matter. Geospatial Solutions 11(5): 24.
Zhan, FB. 2000. The Ribbon and the "Beige Region": GIS Development for Epidemiology Analysis Along the Texas-Mexico Border. SOCIOTAM: International Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities 10(1): 209-220.
Zhan, FB; Noon, EC. 2000. A Comparison Between Label-Setting and Label-Correcting Algorithms for Computing One-to-One Shortest Paths. Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis 4(2): 1-11.
Zhan, FB. 2000. Educating Geographers with GIS Skills for the Real World: Some Feedback from Geography Graduates at Southwest Texas State University. Geocarto International 15(3): 75-79.
Bryan, D; O’Kelly, ME. 1999. Hub and Spoke Networks in Air Transportation: An Analytical Review. Journal of Regional Science 39(2): 275-295.
Holloway, SR; Bryan, D; Chabot, R; Rogers, D; Rulli, J. 1999. Race, Scale and the Concentration of Poverty in Columbus, Ohio, 1980 to 1990. Urban Geography 20(6): 534-551.
Bryan, D. 1998. Extensions to the Hub Location Problem: Formulations and Numerical Examples. Geographical Analysis 30(4): 315-330.
Holloway, SR; Bryan, D; Chabot, R; Rogers, D; Rulli, J. 1998. Exploring the Effect of Public Housing on the Concentration of Poverty in Columbus, Ohio. Urban Affairs Review33(6): 767-789.
O'Kelly, ME; Bryan, D. 1998. Hub Location with Flow Economies of Scale. Transportation Research B 32(8): 605-616.
Zhan, FB; Noon, CE. 1998. Shortest Path Algorithms: An Evaluation Using Real Road Networks. Transportation Science 32(1): 65-73.
Zhan, FB. 1998. A Family of Spatio-Temporal Location Analysis Problems in Mobile Trading. Papers in Regional Science 77(1): 1-18.
Zhan, FB. 1998. Approximate Analysis of Topological Relations Between Geographic Regions with Indeterminate Boundaries. Soft Computing 2(2): 28-34.
Publications prior to 1998
Crowe, JC; Sharp, JM Jr. 1996. Hydrogeological Delineation of Habitats for Endangered Species: the Comal Springs/River system. Journal of Environmental Geology 30 (1/2): 17-28.
Fotheringham, AS; Zhan, FB. 1996. A Comparison of Three Exploratory Methods for Cluster Detection in Spatial Point Patterns. Geographical Analysis 28(3): 200-218.
O'Kelly, ME; Bryan, D; Skorin-Kapov, D; Skorin-Kapov, J. 1996. Hub Network Design with Single and Multiple Allocation: A Computational Study. Location Science 4(3): 125-138.
O'Kelly, ME; Bryan, D. 1996. Agricultural Location Theory: von Thünen's Contribution to Economic Geography. Progress in Human Geography 20(4): 457-475.
Zhan, FB; Buttenfield, BP. 1996. Multi-Scale Representation of a Digital Line. Cartography and Geographic Information Systems 23(4): 206-228.
Zhan, FB. 1997. Three Fastest Shortest Path Algorithms on Real Road Networks: Data Structures and Procedures. Journal of Geographic Information and Decision Analysis 1(1): 69-82.
Zhan, FB; Buttenfield, BP. 1995. Object-Oriented Rule-Based Symbol Selection for Visualizing Statistical Information. International Journal of Geographical Information Systems 9(3): 293-315.